If you use software in your business, a little knowledge about an often misunderstood area of the law could save you tens and possibly hundreds of thousands of dollars. The area of the law is copyrights — but don’t stop reading just because you know you would never illegally copyright software. I have had many clients come to me faced with serious financial sanctions who thought they did nothing wrong.
Perhaps you have never heard of the Business Software Alliance. You are lucky. If you don’t have written agreements with your employees about computer usage, you need to reconsider. And if you have no interest in reading that long license agreement before you click “accept” … well I can’t blame you, but you should at least read it before you make any extra copies of the program.
Let’s start with the basics. Microsoft owns the copyright on Word, Auto Desk owns the copyright on AutoCAD, and Adobe owns the copyright on Acrobat. If you “bought” any of those programs or any other software, you really only licensed them. Whether you bought a CD in the store, downloaded it from the Internet for “free” or it came bundled on your new computer, your use is subject to whatever conditions the copyright owner wishes to impose. If you exceed your permission, then you are violating the copyright. Another basic — you are responsible for the actions of your employees, even if you did not know they were violating the copyright law.
Now let’s discuss a few common myths. Each of the following statements is absolutely false: (1) I can make extra copies for my own use as long as I don’t give or sell them to third parties; (2) I don’t use that computer anymore, so I can just copy the program onto the computer that I do use; (3) it was free on the Internet so it is in the public domain; and (4) they are not interested in going after a small company like mine.
The only way to really know whether an archive copy is permitted or how many different computers you can legally load the software onto is to read the terms of the license that you accepted when you downloaded or installed the software. Don’t assume. Don’t rely on the representative who sold it to you and don’t rely on your tech person. In almost every instance where one of my business clients was accused of copyright infringement, the business assumed or believed that the extra copies were permitted.
Finally, let’s discuss the myth that your business is too small to attract attention and why you should familiarize yourself with the Business Software Alliance (BSA). The BSA is a trade association for copyright owners and it has one purpose — the protection of the copyrights of its members. Its members range from big players like Adobe and AutoCAD to smaller software companies. By turning these enforcement issues over to the BSA, the companies can focus on what they do best — write and develop software. What the BSA does best is locate, negotiate with, and sue infringers. A popular source of information for the BSA is disgruntled former employees. The BSA periodically runs advertisements offering rewards for information. No case is too small and no business is too small for the BSA. Also, the BSA’s idea of negotiation is to slightly discount the full damages. Since copyright laws provide for statutory damages of up to $150,000 per infringement, plus attorney fees, the exposure is significant and the alternative to accepting their proposals is daunting.
With just a few preventative measures, you can protect your business. First, educate your employees on the dangers of unauthorized copying and implement written policies and contracts that prohibit or provide a protocol for any software downloads or copies. By having appropriate policies, you may decrease the amount of damages that can be claimed against you. You will still be responsible for your employees’ conduct so it is important to educate and re-educate your employees on the importance of following the policy.
Another preventative measure is to review your current software and licenses. Un-install any extra copies that are not authorized. When you add a new computer, do not install any software from previous computers without reading the license provisions and determining whether the new install is authorized.
Most importantly, treat copyright protected intangible property such as computer software like you would treat tangible property such as fixtures and equipment. Teach your employees to do the same. You wouldn’t steal or even borrow your neighbor’s car without permission. Respect the intangible property of others in the same way and you are far less likely to find yourself on the wrong side of a copyright infringement claim.