The word “bankruptcy” sends chills down the spines of many business owners and executives as they envision certain financial demise.
But bankruptcy is no longer the frightening phenomenon it once may have been, particularly in the business realm. Chapter 11 bankruptcy has become an extremely useful business tool for a company to reorganize its operations, accomplish a sale of assets, obtain new financing or achieve a capital restructure.
The following are examples of challenges a business often faces:
- A new business has not quite met revenue expectations.
- The equity structure is outdated or unworkable.
- The business owns excess real property it wants to sell or the business wants to acquire additional property.
- The business has been threatened with litigation.
- The business wants to refinance, but the lender has expressed concern about financial or other issues.
- The owners of the business want to merge with another entity.
The most common use of the Chapter 11 bankruptcy process is one designed to restructure the company’s balance sheet. A company that wants to extend or refinance onerous debt, eliminate burdensome contracts or leases, and/or bring in new capital can generally accomplish these goals by a Chapter 11 filing that provides these opportunities and a temporary safe haven.
But Chapter 11 isn’t just for severely financially distressed entities. There are myriad other business reasons for filing a bankruptcy. For example, bankruptcy may be a good alternative for a client who owns some troubled properties and other healthy ones. Structuring a “roll up” and then using the bankruptcy process to propose a long-term solution can provide the necessary and ultimate protection for the distressed properties. Other common business transactions such as sales, mergers and acquisitions may be accomplished in a more beneficial fashion for all parties under the protective umbrella of Chapter 11.
A general knowledge of bankruptcy and the benefits it can provide will arm business owners, management and their advisors with a repertoire of creative solutions to meet business challenges and attain the companies’ ultimate goals.
The purpose of a Chapter 11 bankruptcy is to reorganize. It may include restructuring debt, altering operations, eliminating equity, selling assets or any combination of these things. The reorganization is accomplished through a document called a “plan of reorganization” in which the debtor describes how it intends to pay creditors or treat equity interests. Creditors and equity interests have the opportunity to vote in favor of or against the plan. The aim is to have the plan confirmed by the bankruptcy court, at which time it becomes a binding contract on all affected parties.
A Chapter 11 proceeding is commenced quite easily by filing a simple two-page “petition” with the bankruptcy court. At the time of the filing, an “estate” is created and all assets owned by the debtor prior to the filing are considered to be property of that estate. The debtor is referred to as the “debtor in possession” (DIP). Filing of the case triggers an immediate imposition of an injunction called an “automatic stay.” The stay prevents creditors from proceeding with any action against the DIP, and entitles the DIP some “breathing room” while assets are marshaled or while a reorganization is being developed.
In many respects, the general operations of a business continue in Chapter 11 as they did prior to the filing. The DIP can continue to buy inventory, produce products and sell merchandise as long as the transactions are in the ordinary course and scope of business. Nevertheless, certain actions such as the payment of pre-petition debt, the use of cash proceeds that may be subject to a lien, and the sale of major assets are prohibited unless the bankruptcy court approves them.
The plan of reorganization sets forth the means for payments to the company’s creditors. The general rule is that all claimants on the same level must be treated equally and must be paid in full before the next level can receive payment. Other provisions include financing arrangements or capital contributions and the composition of the company’s management.
The final step is plan “confirmation” by the bankruptcy court. In order for the DIP to confirm a plan, it must obtainthe affirmative vote of all the classes of creditors it has proposed. However, the bankruptcy code permits the DIP to confirm a plan even if it doesn’t have all the needed votes, as long as the plan complies with certain specific sections of the code. Once the plan is confirmed, a bindingcontractbetween the debtor and its creditors is created and the debtor emerges from bankruptcy. All previous obligations to and claims by creditors are discharged and are replaced by therepayment orother obligations created by the plan. The “reorganized” debtor can have a fresh start.
Of course, there are many specifics and nuances to each bankruptcy case. For a comprehensive read on bankruptcy, you can download this guide at www.jsslaw.com/publications.aspx.
Carolyn Johnsen is a member of Jennings Strouss & Salmon. She can be reached at 602-262-5906 or email@example.com