Tag Archives: researchers

stem.cell

TGen researchers uncover root of myeloma relapse

Researchers have discovered why multiple myeloma, a difficult to cure cancer of the bone marrow, frequently recurs after an initially effective treatment that can keep the disease at bay for up to several years.

Working in collaboration with colleagues at Princess Margaret Hospital in Toronto, researchers from Mayo Clinic in Arizona and the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) in Phoenix were part of the team that conducted the study published in the Sept. 9 issue of Cancer Cell.

The research team initially analyzed 7,500 genes in multiple myeloma cells to identify genes which when suppressed made cancer cells resistant to a common class of drugs called proteasome inhibitors such as bortezomib or carfilzomib. Then, the team studied bone marrow biopsies from patients to further understand their results. The process identified two genes (IRE1 and XBP1) that control response to the proteasome inhibitor and the mechanism underlying the drug resistance that is the barrier to cure.

The findings showed recurrence was due to an intrinsic resistance found in immature tumor progenitor (mother) cells is the root cause of the disease and also spawns relapse. The research demonstrates that although the visible cancer cells that make up most of the tumor are sensitive to the proteasome inhibitor drug, the underlying progenitor cells are untouched by this therapy. These progenitor cells then proliferate and mature to reboot the disease process, even in patients who appeared to be in complete remission.

“Our findings reveal a way forward toward a cure for multiple myeloma, which involves targeting both the progenitor cells and the plasma cells at the same time,” says Rodger Tiedemann, M.D., a hematologist specializing in multiple myeloma and lymphoma at Princess Margaret. “Now that we know that progenitor cells persist and lead to relapse after treatment, we can move quickly into clinical trials, measure this residual disease in patients, and attempt to target it with new drugs or with drugs that may already exist.”

“Some myeloma cells are too immature to be caught by the drugs and thus hide underground only to reemerge later,” says Keith Stewart, M.B., Ch.B., Dean for Research at Mayo Clinic in Arizona and contributor to the study. “This study has wide implications in the search for a cure of this common blood cancer as this ‘progenitor cell’ will have to be targeted.”

Jonathan Keats, Ph.D., head of TGen’s Multiple Myeloma Research Laboratory, said: “This study, which leverages data generated at TGen as part of the Multiple Myeloma Genomics Initiative, shows how mutations acquired by multiple myeloma tumors can make a tumor resistant to specific therapies and highlights the importance of TGen’s precision medicine approaches.”

Dr. Tiedemann says: “If you think of multiple myeloma as a weed, then proteasome inhibitors are like a goat that eats the mature foliage above ground, producing a remission, but doesn’t eat the roots, so that one day the weed returns.”

The study — Xbp1s-Negative Tumor B Cells and Pre-Plasmablasts Mediate Therapeutic Proteasome Inhibitor Resistance in Multiple Myeloma — was funded by the National Cancer Institute, Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation, Leukemla and Lymphoma Society and Canadian Cancer Society, the Arthur Macaulay Cushing Estate and The Princess Margaret Cancer Foundation.

Dr. Tiedemann is the Molly and David Bloom Chair in Multiple Myeloma Research, at the University of Toronto, Dr. Stewart is the Anna Maria and Vasek Pollack Professor of Cancer Research at Mayo Clinic. Dr. Keats is an Assistant Professor in TGen’s Integrated Cancer Genomics Division.

native.american

UA Part of $6M research of American Indian Health

Public health researchers at the University of Arizona, along with researchers at two other higher education institutions in the state, have earned a $6 million grant to investigate health issues in American Indian communities.

The National Institutes of Health’s National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities awarded the five-year grant to a statewide team of researchers from the UA, Northern Arizona University and Diné College to establish the Center for American Indian Resilience, also known as CAIR.

The collaborative team will study why some American Indian communities facing high rates of chronic disease and poverty seem to thrive despite adversity.

“The basic practice of public health is about understanding ways to support healthy behaviors, and we know programs that are culturally relevant are more effective,” said Nicolette Teufel-Shone, professor of health promotion sciences at the UA’s Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health.

“We will take a look at existing health behaviors and programs that target the prevention of chronic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes and heart disease, to determine what is working and why,” Teufel-Shone said.

Teufel-Shone and Priscilla Sanderson, assistant professor of health sciences and applied indigenous studies at NAU, have been named CAIR’s co-directors. Diné College faculty on the project are Mark Bauer and Donald Robinson, both of the department of science education.
The UA public health college received $2 million of the CAIR grant, which includes collaborations with tribal communities and research projects.

“CAIR research will deepen our scientific knowledge of existing positive health outcomes in tribal communities, and then we will translate this knowledge to practice through public health education and policy,” said Sanderson, a member of the Navajo Nation.

Also under the grant, the UA public health college will collaborate with NAU and Diné College to support Diné College’s ongoing summer program to teach undergraduate students to consider and incorporate community strengths in their work as emerging public health professionals. The program combines classroom learning with hands-on experience through an internship in tribal communities.

The research project, directed by the UA, also involves a partnership with the Tucson Indian Center to interview elders about their concept of resilience and their perceptions of key factors that contribute to success in life.

Through this initiative, members of the Southwestern American Indian community will record video diaries to share their experiences of well-being.

“The goal of the video diaries project is to use existing information about which factors contribute to Native American resilience and spread this knowledge to other Native American communities,” Teufel-Shone said. “This way, researchers can learn lessons of how resilience is already effective in these communities, share experiences and allow community members to create new paths based on other people’s stories.”

Other UA College of Public Health participants include John Ehiri, director and professor; Division of Health Promotion Sciences; Agnes Attakai, director, Health Disparities Outreach and Prevention Education; Kerstin Reinschmidt, assistant professor, Health Promotion Sciences; and Rebecca Drummond, program director for Family Wellness.

NAU faculty and staff contributing to CAIR include Olivia Trujillo, professor of applied indigenous studies; Robert Trotter, Regents’ professor and chair of anthropology; Chad Hamill, assistant professor of music; Roger Bounds, associate professor and chair of health sciences; Lisa Hardy, assistant professor of anthropology; R. Cruz Begay, professor of health sciences; and Kelly Laurila, coordinator in anthropology. Paul Dutton, director of NAU’s Interdisciplinary Health Policy Institute, will facilitate the executive advisory board.

Diné College faculty on the project are Mark Bauer, PhD and Donald Robinson, PhD of the Department of Science Education.

home.prices

Phoenix’s median home price continues to rise

A new report by real state researchers at Arizona State University says the median home price in metro Phoenix during October increased by 34 percent when compared to the same period a year before.

The report by the university’s W.P. Carey School of Business says the median home price stood at $157,000 in October.

The median home price for October 2011 was $116,000.

The researchers also said the supply of homes and condos in metro Phoenix increased 31 percent over the past three months.