A picture is more than a thousand words spoken. This is what Geographic Information System brings to the world of digital data analysis and presentation. Here Geography is not about geographical aspects; here it means assigning coordinates to objects on the earth’s surface. It works at the intersection of data analysis, programming, and cartography. Spatial data is analyzed through mapping software to design digital maps with geographic data and other data. These data are captured either as raster or vector data. Raster data represent data as a cell or grid matrix while vector data uses sequential points of vertices.
GIS map data, like other data, can be collected either by direct input/capturing or through input from other systems. It has specific steps that must be followed for you to realize good quality-planning, preparation, digitizing and transfer, editing and improvement, and finally evaluating the final output.
GIS has been used extensively in almost all major fields you may know. Here are the three major fields where GIS is used extensively.
Google map is the most used application globally which works on the GIS principle. It helps you to navigate from one point to another with the provision of checking all geographical and physical objects like the specific place, the distance between places, time duration, and even the number of lanes on a specific road. All these work on Satellite images with the enhancement from street viewer API car which Google launched after inaccuracy experiences with satellite images. The API car has the capabilities of collecting more accurate details including information such as signboards, subways, road names, and alternate routes.
Others call it keyhole earth’s viewer, a three-dimensional representation of the earth by Google. It works purely on high-tech satellite images captured and stored using GIS. It allows the viewer to see all the earth places with adequate details. You can easily see your house, land on Google earth from multiple angels by just moving the pointer over the object. The beauty of Google is that anyone has the access and permission to add a name and point of a place like your office, home or field. As of now, Google earth covers 99% of the entire earth surface.
The telecom industry uses GIS as a key tool in decision-making. GIS data is vital in the Network design and modeling of telecom services. The industry also uses GIS to collect information about their services like the number and distribution of their users over a given area, checks which region has less usability, which one has connectivity issues, and so forth. They also learn market trends which put them in the best strategic position against their competitors.
Moreover, GIS is also used in various applications like urban planning, environmental impact analysis, routing and scheduling in navigation, wetland mapping, and many more.
GIS has been proven to be an enduring technology that continues to change how different industries operate. Monitoring of different aspects in various sectors has also been enhanced through application of GIS.