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Which communication protocols are used in IoT?
The tech industry is always busy driving innovation, and one of the most recent creations is the Internet of Things, a network of connected objects and devices that transmit data between each other, applications, and servers. The IoT ecosystem has been expanding all over the world in the last decade or two. Now we’re surrounded by a massive number of objects that have been enabled to collect, process, and send data to other devices. IoT found implementations in many different industries, from automotive and retail to medicine and manufacturing.
But IoT devices only work when they’re safely connected to a communication network. How do engineers make sure that they can communicate? By using a particular language that allows them to talk with one another, which consists of different IoT standards and protocols.
Since general protocols used for tablets, smartphones, and laptops often don’t suit the requirements of IoT, engineers have come up with a range of new IoT network protocols. Here are a few of the most popular ones.
Standing for Data Distribution Service, DDS is an IoT standard that provides high-performance, real-time machine-to-machine communication that offers optimal scalability. DDS is based on two layers: Data-Centric Publish-Subscribe (DCPS) and Data-Local Reconstruction Layer (DLRL). While the former delivers information to subscribers, the latter provides an interface to DCPS functionalities. It’s a great match for low-footprint devices and ones connected to the cloud.
Lightweight M2M is a communication protocol designed specifically for remote device management and telemetry for IoT applications. It offers significant reductions in power and data consumption – that’s why it’s a great fit for devices with limited processing and storage capabilities. Contrary to other IoT protocols, its architecture supports four logical interfaces that help to standardize device management and telemetry.
The Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT) is a protocol for sending data flows from sensors to applications and middleware. MQTT works on top of TCP/IP and includes three components: subscriber, publisher, and broker. The publisher collects data and sends it to subscribers. The broker tests publishers and subscribers to ensure security — a perfect match for small, low-power, and low-memory devices.
These protocols are widespread among the current IoT implementations today and will surely evolve as the technology itself changes over time.